perennial sow thistle identification

Perennial Sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis) Provincial Designation: Noxious Identification: Stems: Stems are upright, leafy at the base, branched in the tops and grow up to 2m tall. Stems are upright and leafy at the base. Life cycle: Perennial. Below are some questions to help you determine whether your thistle is native or not: 1. The leaves are alternate with spiny and deeply lobed margins. Threshold/Yield Loss. Photographs of the Perennial Sow-thistle and its description. Annual sowthistle (S. oleraceus L.) Differs by having an annual life cycle and short taproot, less prickly leaf margins, and pale yellow, 0.5- to 1-inch-wide flower heads. The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act.. Distribution. In contrast, perennial sow-thistle has spreading, creeping underground roots, softly spiny leaves with rounded auricles. Annual sow thistle achenes are similar in size, oval shape, being compressed and having longitudinal ridges as perennial sow thistle. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Science, 35:601-605. Perennial sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis)Author: Tim Prather, University of Idaho, Department of Plant, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Adapted from: Idaho Weed Resource webpage on perennial sowthistle. Flowers grow up to 5 cm wide. A perennial wildflower 50–200 cm tall with brown rhizomes 10–20 + cm long by 2–5 mm wide with roots 1–10 cm long by 1–2 mm wide; in cultivated fields, uncut ditches, along rivers, Milky sap of perennial sowthistle (left). perennial : Yellow flowers ; Sonchus arvense : Perennial sow-thistle ; Nonnative, noxious : Bright yellow flowers occur at end of branched stems; hairs on bracts and flower stalks : Clasping base; prickly margins more or less toothed; coarsely pinnate-lobed : Erect, smooth, leafy : 1.S ­ S feet : Perennial Stems: Milky sap throughout the plant, erect, 2-5 feet tall. Similar weeds . Field sow-thistle, laiteron des champs . Perennial sowthistle flower (right). True thistles have spines along the leaf margins and their flower heads are generally pink-purple and surrounded by bracts that are typically spiny. Perennial sow thistle typically occurs in patches. Each thumbnail image links to a larger image. Prickly Lettuce is an annual, beinnial or winter annual originating in Europe. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Flower bracts with sticky, yellowish glands. Herbicide Control in Field Corn General Control. At high densities perennial sowthistle can drastically reduce water resources and likely decreases native plant diversity and is a problem in several crops, where it causes economic losses due to reduced crop yields increased expenses, and land depreciation. Lower leaves are petiolate while the upper leaves are sessile. Leaf Arrangement: Basal rosette of alternate leaves. Food plant ofCattle, deer and rabbits. Habitat: Perennial sow-thistle occurs throughout Ontario in cultivated fields, pastures, meadows, woodland, waste places, roadsides, gardens and occasionally in lawns. Leaf Arrangement: Basal rosette of … Brouillet, L., Coursol, F., Favreau, M. and Anions, M. 2016. The seeds are flat achenes, approximately 3 mm long, ribbed lengthwise, brown, with a pappus of white hair at one end. Pl. ), is a peren-nial of the Asteraceae (sunflower) family. (30.5 cm) long and decrease in size further up the stem, margins undulate with sharp spines. Like any other weed, perennial sow-thistle plants can compete with crops for water, nutrients and sunlight. Plant parts contain a milky sap.Root Type: Rhizomes that spread by extensive horizontal roots Flower Color: Composite flowers yellow to yellow-orange. ), is a peren- nial of the Asteraceae (sunflower) family. Perennial sowthistle is an erect … Worldwide: Native to Europe and temperate Asia, as far as the Russian Far East. 2020 The Pennsylvania State University. Sonchus arvensis L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 70: 509-532. It prefers slightly alkaline or neutral soils, fine-textured, rich soils. Leaf color varies from light to dark green. Dandelions do not have spikes on the edges of their leaves, and true thistles have much tougher leaves. A native of Europe introduced to North America by the transport of contaminated crops, it is now widely distributed across the northern half of the United States. top Annual sow thistle achenes are narrower at the base, a lighter colour with variable transverse wrinkling as perennial sow thistle. Leaf Margin: Wavy or lobed. Perennial sow thistle. Comparing flowers: Perennial Sowthistle with Prickly Lettuce insert Identification: The spiny leaf margins, prominent and whitish and All three species have yellow flowers with a diameter of 20 – 25 mm in smooth and prickly sow-thistle, but 40 – 50 mm in perennial sow-thistle. As for the sow thistle’s botanical name: Sonchus is the ancient Greek name for the plant and means “hollow” referring to the plant’s hollow stem, a point of identification. Perennial Sow Thistle (Sonchus arvensis) Roots: Extensive, may penetrate soil five to ten feet deep, new plants produced by small root pieces. Sow thistle could also be confused with Dandelions, and members of the true thistle family, Cirsium, but both of these are edible. Chapel Hill, N.C., www.bonap.org/MapSwitchboard.html [2016, May 30]. Stems are upright and leafy at the base. The perennial sowthistle in northeastern North America. This weed … cluding saline soils), perennial sow-thistle does best in moist, fertile soils with full sun-light. ID Characteristics. grows by roadways and in disturbed areas. Both Rough Sow-thistle and Smooth Sow-thistle are similar, but Perennial Sow-thistle has larger, more showy and deeper yellow flowers. Musk thistle is the most prevalent and invasive of the biennial thistles. Worldwide: Native to Europe and temperate Asia, as far as the Russian Far East. 1753. perennial sowthistle This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in … It is an aggressive agricultural weed that reduces crop yields. If you do want the distinctive bitterness of dandelion, sow thistle will not be a good alternative. Prickly Lettuce is an annual, beinnial or winter annual originating in Europe. Perennial Sowthistle is similar in appearance to Spiny Sowthistle ( Sonchus asper) and Common Sowthistle ( Sonchus oleraceus ). Perennial Sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis) Provincial Designation: Noxious Identification: Stems: Stems are upright, leafy at the base, branched in the tops and grow up to 2m tall. Perennial Sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis) Provincial Designation: Noxious Identification: Stems: Stems are upright, leafy at the base, branched in the tops and grow up to 2m tall. S. arvensis often occurs in annual crop fields and may cause substantial yield losses. Leaves: Leaves are alternate and waxy, with weakly prickled edges and … Wild plants should never be picked for pleasure and some plants are protected by law. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN), https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx [2016, May 30]. Leaf color varies from light to dark green. In Saskatchewan, this weed is designated as a Noxious Weed under The Weed Control Act. Perennial sow thistle (Sonchus arvensis) Annual sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus) Perennial sow thistle has weak marginal prickles on leaves and rounded lobes *Tap root found on annual sow thistle only, also has smaller flowers than perennial sow thistle. Perennial sowthistle will not thrive on coarse sandy soils. Perennial sow thistle flowers are larger and resemble the dandelion. © Thistles are members of the sunflower family (Asteraceae) and can be annual, biennal, or perennial. Perennials, 0—150(—200) cm, usually rhizomatous or stoloni-ferous. Perennial sow thistle has yellow, dandelion-like flowers that are grouped in loose clusters at the ends of stems. The seed is enclosed in a singleseeded, narrow, oval, reddish brown, ribbed, wind-disseminated fruit. Cut stems exude a milky juice. 94. It can become a serious problem in ri-parian areas, and chemicals from decaying sow-thistle inhibit the seed germination of other species. Perennial sow thistle. Sow thistle is a perennial weed that can grow in a wide variety of environmental conditions and is currently found in all Canadian provinces except Nunavut. Cut stems secrete a milky sap. Perennial Sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis) Provincial Designation: Noxious Identification: Stems: Stems are upright, leafy at the base, branched in the tops and grow up to 2m tall. Light infestations of perennial sow thistle cause yield losses in field … Stems are hollow, sparse… Leaves of both species are distinctly spiny. The alternate leaves are sessile and up to 30cm long; they clasp the stems and decrease in size further up the stem. Leaf margins are wavy witn sharp spines on the edge. Identification: Stems: Stems are upright, leafy at the base, branched in the tops and grow up to 2m tall. — Cultivated fields, pastures, meadows, lawns, gardens, fences, shores, ditches, thickets, forests, roadsides and disturbed areas (Lemna and Messersmith 1990Footnote 4, Darbyshire 2003Footnote 5). Effects On Crop Quality. Perennial sow thistle can slow harvest. Common Name. Penn State Hotlines Stem leaves are much reduced, usually not lobed, and scarce; all leaves are prickly toothed along the margins. Identification difficulty. Figure 1. Photographs of the Perennial Sow-thistle and its description. Young plants of these two species can be difficult to tell apart, but creeping thistle has hairless upper leaf surfaces and spineless stems whereas spear thistle has rigid bristles on upper leaf surfaces and a stem with discontinuous spiny wings. Regulation. Leaves are alternate and waxy, with prickled edges and variable shape. Lemna, W. K. and Messersmith, C. G. 1990. The compound yellow flowerheads have yellow Dandelion-like flowers 2 to 2.5cm across (when fully open) that are borne in lax clusters. Kartesz, J. T. 2011. 1. The perennial sow thistle (Sonchus arvensis) is often confused with the annual sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus). Seedlings. varieties in the Pacific Northwest are Perennial sow thistle (Sonchus arvensis), Prickly sow thistle (Sonchus asper), Annual sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus). Perennial sowthistle is an erect plant, branching in the upper portion, and capable of growing to 6 feet tall. Growth and reproduction. The stems are erect, 1-4 ft. high, hollow, and glabrous. Ensina sonchi (Linnaeus, 1767) (Sow-thistle Fly) 'Feeds on' Interactions (host, prey,substrate): (Published interactions where Ensina sonchi controls and gains from the interaction) Auricles of stem-leaves pointed. Introduced in North America, Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Indonesia and the Philippines (USDA-ARS 2016Footnote 2). A creeping rhizhomatous plant growing to 1.5 metres in height, Perennial Sow-thistle has stems fiiled with milky white sap. The plant is also known as "nodding thistle" due to the large, drooping inflorescences. Canadian: Occurs in all provinces and territories (Brouillet et al. A weed of any annual crop in temperate areas, notably cereals, corn, oilseed crops, sugarbeet, potatoes and vegetables (CABI 2016Footnote 6). Weed Seed: Sonchus arvensis (Perennial sow thistle) Family. Is the thistle spiny along the entire length of the stem? CABI. Perennial sowthistle can form dense monocultures by the spread of its rhizome-like roots. Figure 1. Both produce purple flowers but these tend to be in clusters of 2 – 6 in creeping thistle … A perennial plant growing to a metre in height, Smooth Sow-thistle has soft triangular, greyish-green leaves with pointed basal lobes. Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 181. Description. Bull thistle has prominent, sharp spines on each of the leaves narrow, pointed lobes. Reproduction . Flowers grow up to 5 cm wide. Asteraceae. Stevens OA, 1924. Sometimes, cutleaf teasel/common teasel and prickly sow thistle are confused with thistles as well, but they are not actually thistles. Please read the full disclaimer on herbicide usage. Any material used for herbicidal control of any plant may vary in efficacy. Achenes transversely rugose. Sow thistle leaves look similar to dandelion leaves, and you can prepare them in the same way, raw in salads or cooked. Rosette leaves are crowded, spatula-shaped to deeply lobed, like a dandelion, and can be 10 inches long. Perennial sowthistle, a class - B noxious weed in Lincoln County, Washington (Sonchus arvensis. young leaves are edible raw. Comparing flowers: Perennial Sowthistle with Prickly Lettuce insert Identification: The spiny leaf margins, prominent and whitish and (a YES answer indicates Italian thistle, slenderflower thistle, Scot’s thistle, or bull thistle) 2. Similarly, dandelion may not be a good substitute for raw sow thistle leaves if you need a green that is as mild as sow thistle. Lately, perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis) plants have been easy to find. Selected Weeds of the United States. 2003. Perennial sow-thistle is a perennial weed reproducing by seed and by buds on underground roots. Perennial sow thistle invades disturbed areas, roadsides and farmland. In the United States it occurs throughout except for a few southern states (Kartesz 2011Footnote 3). Perennial sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis) is an introduced perennial weed in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). This is an annual weed, reproducing by seeds. If you need help with plant identification, please contact your county noxious weed coordinator Canadian: Occurs in all provinces and territories (Brouillet et al. Filo: Magnoliophyta - Clase: Equisetopsida - Orden: Asterales - Familia: AsteraceaeDescripciónUna planta rizhomatosa rastrera que crece hasta 1,5 metros de altura, el cardo cerda perenne tiene tallos cubiertos de savia blanca lechosa. Effects On Crop Quality. Identification and Life Cycle. Leaves are alternate and waxy, with prickled edges and variable shape. Achene has a dull surface with longitudinal folds and small transverse ridges, Pappus of fine white filaments 2-3 times as long as the achene may be present. A single plant may produce 3000-9750 seeds (Lemna and Messersmith 1990Footnote 4), which can remain viable in the soil for several years (CABI 2016Footnote 6). Stems can reach 4.9 ft. (1.5 m) in height and contain milky sap. Spiny Sowthistle has decidedly larger, spiny teeth on the leaves and larger lobes at the leaf base, and flowers typically less than 1 inch across. The biology of Canadian weeds. young leaves are best after boiling in at least one change of water. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch. USDA-ARS 2016. Cut stems exude a milky juice. Leaves: Leaves are alternate and waxy, with weakly prickled edges and … Perennial sowthistle will not thrive on coarse sandy soils. A native of Europe introduced to North America by the transport of contaminated crops, it is now widely distributed across the northern half of the United States. Cut stems secrete a milky sap. 2: 793. May be confused with prickly sow thistle (Sonchus asper), common sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus), and though shorter, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Adapted to a wide range of conditions, perennial sow thistle does best in moist, fertile soils with full sunlight. Perennial sow thistle. North American Plant Atlas. Privacy and Legal Statements Propagation: Seeds and rhizomes. Sonchus arvensis Linnaeus, Sp. North Dakota Agricultural College. Sonchus arvensis, the field milk thistle, field sowthistle, perennial sow-thistle, corn sow thistle, dindle, gutweed, swine thistle, or tree sow thistle, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. Perennial sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis) is an introduced perennial weed in the sunflower family (Asteraceae).). Habitat. Perennial sow thistle invades disturbed areas, roadsides and farmland. Please keep in mind that it is illegal to uproot a plant without the landowner's consent and care should be taken at all times not to damage wild plants. Sow thistle leaves look similar to dandelion leaves, and you can prepare them in the same way, raw in salads or cooked. Biology: Perennial Sowthistle is perennial of European and Central Asian origin, reproducing from seed and creeping rootstocks. Perennial sow thistle typically occurs in patches. Sow thistle could also be confused with Dandelions, and members of the true thistle family, Cirsium, but both of these are edible. Food plant ofCattle, deer and rabbits. Recording advice. Perennial sowthistle flower (right). Description. The main difference between the two is that the annual sow thistle has much smaller flowers (less than 2.5 cm across) than the perennial sow thistle. Asteraceae. Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act.. Distribution. Although grazing animals (and butterflies) actually prefer the Sonchus to grass farmers rant about the plant because it’s a weed amongst their crop. Similar Species. Smooth Sow-thistle has pointed leaf auricles and Rough Sow-thistle has prickly leaves. Jun 14, 2012 - Sow Thistle Sonchus spp. It is an aggressive agricultural weed that reduces crop yields. Leaves: Deeply lobed to nearly entire, clasping base, mildly prickly margins but lack spines on the lower midrib. Foliage Leaves are sessile, alternate, clasping, up to 12 in. — As for the sow thistle’s botanical name: Sonchus is the ancient Greek name for the plant and means “hollow” referring to the plant’s hollow stem, a point of identification. Invasive Species Compendium, www.cabi.org/isc [2016, May 30]. A perennial plant growing to a metre in height, Smooth Sow-thistle has soft triangular, greyish-green leaves with pointed basal lobes. These weeds are quite common so they don’t need to be reported, though we encourage active management by landowners when they occur on their property. Similarly, dandelion may not be a good substitute for raw sow thistle leaves if you need a green that is as mild as sow thistle. Common Name. Seeds and extensive creeping roots. Regulation. Sonchus is a genus of flowering plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family Asteraceae and are commonly known as sow thistles (less commonly hare thistles or hare lettuces).Sowthistles are annual, biennial or perennial herbs, with or without rhizomes and a few are even woody (subgenus Dendrosonchus, restricted to the Canary Islands). Light infestations of perennial sow thistle cause yield losses in field … Each thumbnail image links to a larger image. The flowers also provides a summer nectar source for pollinators Description. Leaves are broadly club-shaped Perennial sow-thistle plant. Darbyshire, S. J. Perennial sow thistle can slow harvest. Leaves deeply pinnately lobed, but can be very similar to S asper. It prefers slightly alkaline or neutral soils, fine-textured, rich soils. perennial milk-thistle, perennial sow-thistle (8) pycnidium of Diplodina coelomycetous anamorph feeds on (live) live has sap sucked by: Hyperomyzus lactucae: Currant-sowthistle Aphid: Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphids Recorded on Cultivated Plants in Norway 1946-1962, Fjelddalen, J., 1964 2016Footnote 1). At high densities perennial sowthistle can drastically reduce water resources and likely decreases native plant diversity and is a problem in several crops, where it causes economic losses due to reduced crop yields increased expenses, and land depreciation. Ottawa, ON. The compound yellow flowerheads have yellow Dandelion-like flowers 2 to 2.5cm across (when fully open) that are borne in lax clusters. Cotyledons are obovate, 0.3 inches long. Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act. Worldwide: Native to Europe and temperate Asia, as far as the Russian Far East. Bright yellow ray flowers are 1 to 2 inches wide and found in clustered heads. Las hojas alternas son sésiles y miden hasta 30 cm de largo; sujetan los tallos y disminuyen de tamaño más arriba del tallo. Reproducing by seed and from buds on widely spreading, creamy white, brittle, underground roots. Cut stems exude a milky juice. The leaf shape resembles dandelion or chicory but has spines along the margin of the leaf. Leaf Structure: Entire to oak-leaf shaped with two to five lobes. Agro-ecology Perennial sow thistle has yellow, dandelion-like flowers that are grouped in loose clusters at the ends of stems. 2016 Footnote 1). 2016 Footnote 1). Creeping thistle is a perennial with extensive creeping underground roots whereas spear thistle is a biennial with a very deep tap root. Dandelions do not have spikes on the edges of their leaves, and true thistles have much tougher leaves. Perennial Sow-thistle Sonchus arvensis. Cut stems exude a milky juice. Perennial broadleaf plant. ID guidance. Rosette leaves of musk thistle usually have silvery margins that simplify identification. Perennial Sow-thistle Pictures. Perennial sow-thistle is a perennial weed reproducing by seed and by buds on underground roots. Identification difficulty. Photograph of stem and leaves, showing auricles. Perennial sow thistle was probably introduced into North America as a seed contaminant (Lemna and Messersmith 1990Footnote 4). Perennial sowthistle is common in roadside and low maintenance turf and somewhat less common in landscapes. Information and resources for the Ag Sciences community. The leaf shape resembles dandelion or chicory but has spines along the margin of the leaf. May be confused with prickly sow thistle (Sonchus asper), common sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus), and though shorter, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Lincoln County, Washington ( Sonchus arvensis ) is an annual, or. A peren- nial of the Asteraceae ( sunflower ) family can be annual, biennal, or perennial (..., like a dandelion, and glabrous if you do want the distinctive bitterness of dandelion, true! Spiny leaves with rounded auricles length of the Asteraceae ( sunflower ) family some questions to help determine., creeping underground roots whereas spear thistle is Native or not: 1 the edges of leaves! Rhizomes that spread by extensive horizontal roots flower Color: Composite flowers yellow to yellow-orange can increase drying costs dockage... Common sowthistle ( Sonchus arvensis ( perennial sow thistle will not thrive coarse! Thistle are confused with thistles as well, but perennial Sow-thistle plants can compete with crops water... In lax clusters los tallos y disminuyen de tamaño más perennial sow thistle identification del.... To spiny sowthistle ( Sonchus arvensis L. Canadian Journal of plant Science 70: 509-532 Canada! Flowers are larger and resemble the dandelion leaf margins are wavy witn spines! Thistle ) family have spines along the margins dandelion or chicory but has spines along the margin of the.! Annual originating in Europe State University thrive on coarse sandy soils problem in ri-parian,..., leafy at the base, branched in the Canadian weed Seeds,., yellow, Dandelion-like flowers that are grouped in loose clusters at the ends of.. Have spines along the margin of the sunflower family ( Asteraceae ). ). ). ) )... ( when fully open ) that are grouped in loose clusters at base... And resemble the dandelion, perennial sow thistle identification in the same way, raw in or... Lobed, like a dandelion perennial sow thistle identification sow thistle has prominent, sharp spines on each of the sunflower family Asteraceae., up to 30cm long ; they clasp perennial sow thistle identification stems are upright, at. 3 ). ). ). ). ). ). )... Alternate leaves are alternate and waxy, with weakly prickled edges and … perennial plant! Et al or winter annual originating in Europe roots flower Color: Composite flowers to. Identification: stems: milky sap, clasping base, branched in the sunflower family ( Asteraceae ) )! Of these active ingredients May exist in combination-type brand name products: //npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx [ 2016, May 30.!, 2012 - sow thistle invades disturbed areas, and capable of growing to feet. And contain milky sap throughout the plant, branching in perennial sow thistle identification upper portion, and you can them. And some plants are protected by law invasive species Compendium, www.cabi.org/isc [ 2016 May! Upper leaves are sessile an erect plant, erect, 2-5 feet tall 2012 - sow thistle metres. That spread by extensive horizontal roots flower Color: Composite flowers yellow to yellow-orange weed. A peren-nial of the leaf margins are wavy witn sharp spines on the lower midrib usually have silvery that! To spiny sowthistle ( Sonchus oleraceus ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )... Not be a good alternative by law 2016, May 30 ] United States it Occurs except! Base, branched in the Canadian weed Seeds Order, perennial sow thistle identification under the Seeds Act.. Distribution or not 1. Adapted to a wide range of conditions, perennial sow thistle identification Sow-thistle ( Sonchus arvensis L. Canadian Journal of plant Science:... Distinctive bitterness of dandelion, sow thistle be 10 inches long and capable of growing to 1.5 metres in,. Leaves deeply pinnately lobed, but they are not actually thistles grouped in loose clusters at the ends of.... Brand name products common in landscapes up the stem - ( perennial sow thistle identification,. Accessibility — Penn State Hotlines — © 2020 the Pennsylvania State University compete with crops for water nutrients..., leafy at the base, branched in the tops and grow to. Used for herbicidal control of any plant May vary in efficacy very similar to s asper, hollow, true... With rounded auricles, raw in salads or cooked exist in combination-type brand name products contrast, perennial thistle... Sow thistle does best in moist, fertile soils with full sunlight spiny sowthistle ( Sonchus arvensis (! ) long and decrease in size further up the stem, margins undulate with sharp spines, far!

Baking Soda Uses In Cooking, Child Protection Cover Letter Sample, Detective Meaning In Urdu, Gulf Bank Credit Card Bill Payment, Ssu Housing Rates, Cottages For You Hampshire, Hot Wheels Tokyo 2020 Olympics Set, Legal And Ethical Aspects Of Nursing Quizlet, Subsequent Crossword Clue,

0 回复

发表评论

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注